What way of life do people in your village expect for the future? あなたの村の人々は、将来の暮らしはどうあるべきだと考えていますか?

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People have been talking about ‘sustainable development’. All human rights should be realized, which is universal standard ‘sustainable development’ must be about. We also know that the environment we live in and are part of has limitation in its capacity. ‘Sustainable development’ we think about, on the other hand, is specific to different given contexts. Geographic, cultural, demographic conditions have been shaping our ideas of ‘sustainable development’.

How do you think your village should go for the future generations? People in Qoma Island shared their lives and views.

多くの人がサステナブルディベロップメント(破壊しない開発)について議論しています。人々みながその人権を享受することはもちろんですが私たちの住む地球環境に限りがあることも私たちは知っています。一方で、どんな開発が必要かは地理的、文化的、どんなところに住んでいるかなどの条件によって、さまざまな考え方があるようです。

次の世代のためにあなたの住む村はどうあるべきだと考えますか?ゴマ島の女性が思いを語ってくれました。

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERASera lives with husband, three sons and nine grand children.

She started fishing when she got married. She goes to the sea when it is sunny, sometime by boat to fish, sometimes go around the reef in low tide to glean. She follows advice from her son when to go to the sea. When the weather is not good enough to go fishing, she weaves mats at home.

For the next generations she hopes that the village life will continue just in a way it is going on now rather than having changes.

セラは夫、三人の子供、九人の孫と暮らしています。セラは結婚してから初めて漁に出るようになりました。晴れているときは舟で沖に出たり、引き潮のときはさんご礁付近で魚や貝などを取ります。いつ漁に出るかは息子のアドバイスに従います。天気の悪い日は家でござを編みます。セラは次の世代も彼女たちがしてきたような生活を続けてほしいと思っています。

Leba is from Beqa island, came to Qoma when she married. She usually goes to fish. She lives with her husband and four children.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAShe would like to see that the life style of future generations in the village will change so as to adapt to the changing society and economy. She wants her children to have higher education (university level) and better employment opportunities.

Her son wants to become a soldier and defend his country. Her husband wants the community to remain as it is, does not want change.

レバはベガ島出身で、結婚を機にゴマに移りました。レバもよく漁に出ます。夫と四人の子供がいます。レバは、次の世代には社会や経済の変化に適応するよう生活スタイルが変わってほしいと思います。子供たちが大学へ行き、いい仕事に就けるよう願っています。ちなみにその息子に将来何をしたいかきいてみると、兵士になって国を守りたいとのこと。(フィジーは現在軍事政権)夫は村はこのままで変わってほしくないそうです。

Milika has been fishing since she was a child. She goes to fish almost everyday. She has four children. She is proud of her two daughters who go to fish by themselves and are able to feed the family when their parents do not go to the sea.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAShe has been serving the village as a health worker. She provides medicines to the villagers and takes the sick and injured to the hospital by boat to the main island when needed. She is sometimes invited to participate in the trainings where she gets information on health to share with the villagers.

She observed no change occurred in the fish, the catch and the sea since she started fishing.

She would like her children to do fishing like she has been doing and expects them to look after their extended family.

ミリカは小さいころから漁に携わってきました。ほぼ毎日漁に出ます。四人の子供がいて、中でも二人の姉妹はすでに漁に出ています。両親が出かけないときには姉妹二人だけで魚を取り、家族の食べる分をまかないます。ミリカは村の保健担当でもあります。薬を提供したり、病人やけが人を病院まで船で連れて行きます。研修に参加し、健康に関する情報を得て、村人の役に立っています。

ミリカは、魚、収穫、海の様子など、子供のときから変わっていないといいます。

子供たちには、自分がしてきたように漁をし、家族を養っていってほしいと思っています。

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Changes are always happening in our villages in this globalised world. Information and knowledge on the facts, effects and consequences would be crucial for our conscious decision making on what changes to bring and prevent. Also as someone said, being aware is not enough, need to act.

What way of life do people in your village expect for the future? What has to be changed and what should be kept as it is?

世界がさまざまにつながっている今の時代、変化は常に起こっているといえます。何を帰る必要があるのか、何を変えずに守っていくのか判断するのに、事実、影響、結果を知る、予測するための情報や知識は重要でしょう。また、『わかっている』だけではだめで、行動することが必要、といわれています。あなたの村の人々は、将来の暮らしはどうあるべきだと考えていますか?変わるべきこと、変化から守るべきことは何でしょうか?

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OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAQoma Island is located around 2 hours from the capital city, Suva by bus and then 3 minutes from the shore by boat. Qoma consists of three islands. Most of the houses are located in Nabulebulewa (concentrated in around 100m x 100m) which is connected by a bridge to the biggest island, Qoma Levu where some houses are located on the lower part and higher part has been cultivated for crops. Qoma Lailai island is on the other side of Qoma Levu.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAHow is the life in Qoma Island?

§  50 households live in the island. They also have a village hall, a church and a kindergarten.
§  They are connected t o the grid. Gas cylinders, woods and coconut husks etc are used for cooking. Rain water is harvested in a tank by each household.
§  They boat to the main island for schools and hospitals.
§  Boat transfer to and from the main island is managed by a family (50c/ way)
§  There is a small glossary shop run by a family.
§  Waste water from households is not treated, released to the sea. Garbage is segregated and buried or burnt in the island.

ゴマ島には50世帯、コミュニティホール、教会、幼稚園、小さなよろずやがあります。電線が通っています。煮炊きはガスボンベか薪、水は雨水をタンクにためて使います。学校や病院は船で5分のメインの島に行きます。下水は処理されず海に流されます。ごみは分別し、燃やすか埋めるかします。

LivelihoodsOLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

§  Most of them go fishing. Both men and women go and fish by boat. Men tent to go further while women also gather around the reef. “We go and fish when we want to eat”.
§  Big fish are sold while smaller ones for home consumption. The village chief decides the size of fish which should be returned to the sea
§  Both women and men sell fish at the market or to the middle persons. The price is usually fixed without harsh negotiations with the buyers.
§  Farming: They plant root crops (cassava, yam, sweet potato) for their consumption. They have few vegetables.
§  Mat making with pandanus leaves for village functions and household use is done mostly by women but some men do, too.

村のほとんどが漁師です。男性も女性も舟で漁に出ますが、男性は遠くまでいき、女性はさんご礁付近で漁をすることもあります。『食べたいときに出かけて魚を取ってくる』そうです。大きな魚は売り、小さいのは家庭で食べます。小さすぎるものは海に返します。村長がその大きさを決めます。

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAVillage governance

The village has several committees which everyone voluntarily gets involved in, e.g. youth, women, church, education, water, fisheries management. Each committee discusses the issues and brings to the town hall meeting with the village chief. Village chief is usually a man chosen by men.

The village decided: don’t dump the garbage in the sea; don’t cut the mangroves (for fire wood – replaced by cutting trees); replant mangroves from inner sea to the outer to prevent the waves. Mangrove replanting is usually done by men in the village.

村の組織には委員会があります。青年部、女性部、教会、教育、水、漁業マネージメントなどがあり、村人全員が自分の選択で何かの委員に属し、ボランティアで活動します。各委員会で出た問題は村全体の会で話し合われます。村長はたいてい男性で、男性の集まりで選びます(!)。ゴマ村は、ごみを海に捨てない、マングローブを切らない(煮炊き用に使われていましたが、マングローブの代わりに木を切るようになりました!)、波による侵食を防ぐため本島側のマングローブを外海側に移植する、ことを決めました。マングローブの移植はたいてい男性の仕事です(?)。

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAIssues

§  One of the current problems is the increase in the fuel cost for the boat (benzene). When it is high, they do not go far but fish around the coast.
§  Some villagers said the size of fish is getting smaller and the catch is less than before. They suspect it is because more people from outside the village come to their sea and fish at night without permission.
§  They put the sea wall with coral rocks to prevent waves, which has been washed out.
§  Some observed high tide is higher than before and low tide is not as low as it used to be.
§  Coral bleaching is still observed (according to the research done by university students)

問題点

燃料費の高騰、節約のため船を出す回数や出かける距離を減らします。以前に比べ、魚のサイズが小さく、収穫が減ったという人もいます。村以外から違法に漁をしにやってくる船が増えたためだという人もいます。

沖合いに防波壁を作りましたが、波に破壊されてしまいました。以前に比べ満潮時の海面は高くなり、引き潮でも下がらないと観察する人もいます。学生の調査によると、海水の温度が上がると起きる珊瑚の白化現象(珊瑚の死につながる)がみられるということです。

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