Women in artisanal fisheries in Fiji – A snapshot 漁業に携わる女性、フィジー

Suva municipal market

Suva municipal market

Women who engage in fisheries in Fiji are, as Dr. Bidesi summarized, mostly either in subsistence fishing; small scale commercial fishing; or employed in the international fishing industry. フィジーで漁業に携わる女性というと、ビデシ教授がまとめたように、自給レベル、小規模の商業漁業、海外企業のかかわる水産業での従事にほぼ分類されるといえます。

Regarding the second type of fishing, artisanal small scale commercial fishing, you can meet many women selling fish and other seafood in the municipal markets in Fiji such as in Suva. スバなどにある自治体の市場では、多くの小規模の商業漁業に携わる女性が水産物を売る姿に出会います。

Every week, selling starts on Thursdays or Fridays. This activity has been going on for more than 10 years. Selling does not occur the whole week due to market demand. (Verebalavu 2009) 毎週、木曜、金曜あたりから売り買いが始まります。もう10年以上も続いています。需要が限られているので毎日ではありません。

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERASome are full time, some can be seasonal producing or buying and selling seasonal seafood such as land crabs and octopus. Some women only come to sell when they have a need to raise funds (e.g. for a village function, church activity, school activity, or family obligation). (Verebalavu 2009) フルタイムで働く女性もいれば、産物の種類によってそのシーズンだけ従事する女性、あるいは地元や教会の行事など、特別に資金が必要になったときだけ漁をし、売りに来る女性もいます。

Vasseba is from Naitasiri, another province in the north of Suva, collects Kai (venus ark shell) from the river and sells at the Suva market.  She is a full timer. バッセバはスバの北にあるネタシリで、川から貝を採集し、スバの市場に売りに来ます。

Kai

Kai

Akanisi (not real name) was selling lobsters and other fish at the Suva municipal market. She dived and caught them by spear. She comes to the market to sell her products once a week. アカニシ(仮名)はこの土曜はスバの市場でロブスターや魚を売りました。自身で海に潜り、やりで突いてロブスタ―や魚を取ります。彼女は週に一度市場に売りに来ます。

“Many of them earn real income through fishing and controlling the family finances”.  Women in small scale fisheries have also been active in networking at village level as well as national level. “Smaller informal groups exist within these major ones that are work groups where women pool resources to overcome constraints faced in fishing, transport of goods and marketing.” (Vunicea 1996) 「多くの女性は漁によって家計の主な収入を得、管理します」。女性たちは村のネットワーク、さらに国内のネットワークを築いて活発に活動しています。「大小さまざまなグループが存在し、グループでは資金をプールして漁、産物の運送、マーケティングでの問題を解決するのに使われます。

According to the research conducted by Verebalavu, University of South Pacific, Fiji, the level of education the women selling their products at the municipal markets ranges from elementary (8 years) to University degree. フィジーにある南太平洋大学のベレバラブが行ったリサーチによると、市場で水産物を売る女性たちの教育レベルは小学校(8年間)卒業から大学卒までさまざまだということです。

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

selling lobsters

It is commonly identified that although women are active in small scale fishing and post-harvest, their economic contribution to their households, communities and countries are hardly recognised. 女性たちは小規模漁業の重要な働き手でありながら、世帯、コミュニティ、国の経済への貢献は十分認識されていません。

The women face various difficulties including long working hour, travelling to the market and staying nearby for a few days, lack of access to decision making processes due to the persistent customary gender roles. (Vunicea 1996) 長時間の労働、市場への移動にまつわる苦労など女性たちはさまざまな問題に面しています。慣習的な女性、男性の役割が根強く、女性には決定権がありません。

“Labour laws in the fisheries sector have been notoriously inadequate for both men and women. Given the legal formalities involved, the new ILO Fishing Convention which was adopted in June 2007 will take some time to come into effect. At the same time, the focus of the Convention is limited to the safety and protection of fisher’s rights on fishing vessels. This does not cover the women in supporting shore-based activities or address social problems associated with seafarers in the port or with their families. (Ram 2008) 「漁業に関する労働法は男性にとっても女性にとっても不十分なままです。ILOの漁業条約が2007年6月に採択されましたが、実効性を持つまでには時間がかかります。また、漁業条約の中心は漁船に関する漁民の権利保護に限られています。ここには、漁船を使わない漁を主とする女性の活動は含まれませんし、港での漁船員にまつわる社会問題や家族内の問題を扱うことはできません。」

selling seaweeds

selling seaweeds

References:

Aliti, V. 1994. Subsistence fishing, women and modernization. In: Fiji in Fishing for Answers: Women and fisheries in the pacific islands. Matthews E. (ed.), Women and Fisheries Network, Suva, Fiji, pp. 101-107.

Ram, V. 2008. Recognizing women in fisheries: Policy considerations for developing countries. In: Yemaya, No. 29, Biswas, N. (ed.), International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), Chennai, India, pp. 12-13.

Verebalavu J. 2009. Women in artisanal and commercial fisheries in Fiji. In: SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin #20, Vuki, V. (ed.),  pp. 17-22. http://www.spc.int/coastfish/en/publications/bulletins/women-in-fisheries/82-women-in-fisheries-information-bulletin-20.html

Also women's group selling homemade jams - using reused bottles!

Also women’s group selling homemade jams – using reused bottles!

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