北タイの女性起業家(パヤオ -チェンマイ) Women entrepreneurs in Northern Thailand (Phyao-Chiangmai)

ペーウ(左): パヤオで手工芸ビジネスのコーディネート Paew (left) coordinates local women for handicrafts production in Phayao

トーイ( 中央):チェンマイで、革細工職人Toy (centre) is a leatherworks artisan in Chiang Mai

シモン (右):チェンマイ在住、北タイの手工芸品貿易、ベルギー出身 Simone (right) coordinates women artisans for her handicraft trading, based in Chiang Mai

それぞれの分野でプロの3人の女性のコラボレーションでできるバスケットを紹介します。

バスケットはパヤオ湖でとれるウオーターヒヤシオンス、日本語でホテイアオイから作られます。約20年前、バスケット作りが村に紹介され、ペーウのお母さんら、村の女性たちがはじめました。Women make baskets from water hyacinth growing in the lake Phayao. Paew’s mother started the basket making 20 years ago.

トーイとシモンは、製品の出来具合をチェックするため、パヤオのペーウを訪れました。チェンマイ、パヤオ間は、バスで3時間弱。Toy and Simone visited Paew and checked the baskets. Phayao is located less than three hours by bus east from Chiang Mai.

ペーウは地元でバスケットを作る女性たちをコーディネートして注文に応じます。Paew coordinates local women artisans for the orders.

バスケットに、トーイが革の留め具をつけます。革職人の経験からアドヴァイス。トーイはタイ語と英語で3人の間のコミュニケーションを円滑に進めます。Toy advises the women who make baskets from her point of view. She will put her leather handles and braces to the baskets. Toy is also a “connector” of women in Thai and English.

シモンは彼女のデザインのコンセプトや、オーダー元のイギリスの会社から送られた要望を製作者に伝えます。品質、スケジュール管理をし、作り手、コーディネーター、買い手みなが満足するよう気を配ります。Simone tells the women the concept of her design, requests from her customers in England. She keeps up the quality of the products and whole schedules so that everyone – women basket makers, coordinators, artisans, buyers and herself – will be happy.

お母さんはさらに独自の技術とデザインを開発、チャワワッ(CHAWAWAD)というブランド名をつけました。パヤオのOTOP(One Tambon (village), One Product),一村一製品に指定されています。乾燥させたホテイアオイを割いて、よって、枯葉、木の実、ターメリックなどで染色, 違った風合いが出ます。 Paew’s mother developed her design and skills into her original basket brand, “CHAWAWAD”.  Her brand is designated as one of the OTOP (One Tambon (village), One Product of Phayao. She slits the dried water hyacinth, dyes them with herbs and weave into baskets and bags.

得意先に応じてさまざまなデザインのバッグやバスケットが作られます。ペーウはバッグの取っ手を模造皮で作る仕事も始めました。Paew has recently started another business making handles for bags with artificial leather.

Those professional women artisans and coordinators have started conceptualising new products for the next season using the water hyacinth in Phayao lake.

Phayao lake: photo by Simone

Phayao lake: photo by Simone

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They are not feeling the heat: JPN “Options” for post 2012

Let’s look at the “Options” for Japan’s Post-2012 in terms of the issues pointed out by Ulrich Hoffmann in his “SOME REFLECTIONS ON CLIMATE CHANGE, GREEN GROWTH ILLUSIONS AND DEVELOPMENT SPACE”, 2011, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), which demonstrated the “green growth myth”.

Hoffmann 1.  Can we achieve the required level of carbon intensity of production?

Under the prevailing growth paradigm, in a world of more than 9 billion people by 2050, assuming an annual GDP growth of 2 per cent till then as well as an appropriate catching up of developing countries in terms of GDP per capita (to the EU average of 2007), the global carbon intensity of production would have to fall to just 6g/$ of production to limit global warming to 2°. (In the scenario of 0.7%/year population increase with 1.4%/year average income growth, it would have to be reduced to 36g CO2/$.)

JPN: If we simply calculate emissions (kg) / GDP (US$) as carbon intensity of production, using the “ambitious” scenario presented in the report, the projections of the carbon intensity of production in 2020 and 2030 look far away from the target for the 2° global temperature rise/ 80% emission cut by 2050 presented by Hoffmann. Japan reduced around 44% over the last 20 years (1990-2010) and it has to cut more than 80% from 2030 projection to achieve 36g/$ in 20 years.

Japan’s carbon intensity of production based on the GOJ’s “ambitious” scenario

  1990 2010 2020 2030
GDP (bill US$)

(source: IMF)

3,058.038 5,458.797 5,518.844

(Est. 1,1% over 10ys)

5,562.995

(Est. 0.8% over 10ys)

GHG emissions (Gg, CO2 equivalent)

(UNFCCC)

1,266,716  1,257,982 1,152,712

(Est. 9% cut 1990 base)

1,013,373

(Est. 20% cut 1990 base)

Kg/$ 0.414 (414g/$) 0.230 (230g/$) 0.208 (208g/$) 0.182 (182g/$)

 

Hoffmann 2. Is the massive absolute decline in material/resource/energy (MRE) use indeed feasible?

  • enhanced MRE efficiency and ample availability of cheap renewable energy will encourage a certain “rebound effect”, i.e. physical consumption is likely to increase as a result of lower prices and the shifting of thus saved consumer money or investment funds.
  • Some of these technical advances rely onmaterial, which is either scarce or very energy intensive to produce or difficult to re-use, recycle or safely dispose of.
  • According to Bleischwitz et al. (2012: 21), “the upswing for eco-industries in the North may have a dark side in the South: resource-rich countries being moved into rapid extraction paths.

JPN: “Rebound effect” – that is what the “green growth” aimed for by the strategy proposed by the report.

The report encourages to produce (not reduce) “biomass plastic” by biomass refinery to replace petroleum-derived plastic and the biomass refinery technology has not yet been at the commercialised level in Japan.

The report says that the stable supply of a large amount of homogeneous bio-energy sources domestically and overseas has to be ensured.

Although the report promotes to increase the efficiency in domestic production of bio fuel, there are bio-energy production related projects carried out outside the country. The report presented no consideration of the possible negative impacts on the countries providing the raw materials for producing the “new, clean energy” to Japan.

Corporation location Project
Itochu, Nikki (JGC corporation) and others Isabela, Philippines Sugarcane plantation (11,000ha) and bio-ethanol production (54,000 kl/y)
Pacific Bio-fields, Philippines Ilocos Norte, Philippines Large-scale coconut  plantation and production of biodiesel targeting 100,000 ha, 300,000kl/y
Itochu Binh Phuoc, Vietnam Ethanol production from cassava targeting 100,000  kl/y
Japan Bio-Energy Development Corporation Myanmar Jatropha crude oil production

100t/month to export to Japan

Itochu Johor, Malaysia Palm shell pellets production, targeting 24,000t / year

Biomass white paper 2011, Biomass Industrial Society Network, http://www.npobin.net/hakusho/2011/index.html

The Philippine Star, July 26, 2010, http://www.philstar.com/Article.aspx?articleId=596635&publicationSubCategoryId=66

 

Hoffmann 3. Just shifting MRE to developing countries?

A considerable part of MRE efficiency gains in developed countries has been achieved not by “real physical savings” resulting from changes in production and consumption patterns/modes, but by “outsourcing” very MRE-intensive production to developing countries.

JPN: Japanese automobile business is shifting its production from their domestic factories to outside the country to survive the strong yen recession. Toyota decided to move its production of the export cars to the North America – 25,000 cars / year to its factory in France while Nissan plans to reduce its domestic production by 15% by next month. (Chuo Nippo (26 June 2012), http://japanese.joins.com/article/377/154377.html)

Japanese automobile production:

2011: 27.2% of the world production; -12.8% in domestic, +1.5% in oversea production from the previous year.

2010: 29.2% of the world production; +21.4% in domestic, +30.3% oversea production from the previous year.

(Automobile information centre, http://autoinfoc.com/seisan/gurobaruseisan/s-gurobaruseisan-1.html)

 

Hoffmann 4. Can renewable energy reduce MRE use?

It will be technically extremely challenging to completely replace fossil fuel by renewable energy (RE). Wind and solar, the two most promising RE sources, are variable and intermittent, and therefore cannot serve as “base-load” electricity, requiring substantial conventional electricity capacity as backup. They also require significant material input into the production of solar panels and wind turbines and a major upgrading of storage capacity, transmission lines and the creation of intelligent grids, all set to drive up material consumption (and related costs).

JPN: The report estimates the increase in the power generation by the renewable energy: solar, wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass by 1.3-2.0 times by 2020 and 2-3 times by 2030 against the nearest year level.

It predicts the increase in the use of coal and LNG for the thermal power generation to backup the renewable energy power plants though it promotes more LNG use than coal. It is concerned that running thermal power plants on low power as backup may reduce energy efficiency and increase CO2 emissions.

 

Hoffmann 5. Can we rely on the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to offset the coal consumption increase?

Coal will be one of the fossil energy sources to back up the RE because of the supplies of which have a geological reach of some additional 200 years. However,  the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is at early experimental stage and thus still largely unproven, absorbs at least 20 per cent of energy generated by the concerned power plants, reduces the efficiency rate of the whole plant by at least a quarter and might never be available at sufficient scale in the not too distant future

JPN: The report reveals that the CCS technology is the key strategy for emission reduction to offset the increase in the use of coal. The technology has not yet been commercialised in Japan. (CCS is not counted as contribution to the emission reduction targets of 2020 and 2030)

 

Hoffmann 6, GHG emissions from agricultureare projected to rise by almost 40 per cent till 2030. What are the strategies to offset this?

Significant external (fuel-related) inputs are the major causes and driving forces of agricultural GHG emissions.

If the emissions from agricultural production, related land-use changes, and emissions from food processing, packaging, transport and retail, as well as food wastage are aggregated, the total emissions are estimated to account for almost half of all global GHG emissions (GRAIN (2012).

JPN: The major strategy in the agricultural sector presented in the report is to reduce the emissions from greenhouse horticulture by introducing energy saving agricultural machines, such as heat insulation cover, heat pump, LED bulbs, using more solar energy – so, more materials to be manufactured and consumed.

It promotes energy saving and low emission schemes “according to the actual situations of the food industry”, which means that the existing system of food production, distribution and consumption, which should be restructured, will be preserved.

The policy to reduce fertiliser application in the report sounds fine.

 

Hoffmann 7. How should we deal with the projected increase in the world population which will drive the scale effect of production and consumption?

Population will increase by about 35 per cent, from 6.9 billion in 2010 to about 9.3 billion by 2050 (UN/DESA (2010). While it is a fact that the countries with the highest population growth have contributed least to GHG emissions thus far, this is only because their populations continue to live in extreme poverty.

Yes, we need to look at not only both the gaps in the historical total and per capita emissions between developed and developing countries but also the emission (consumption) gap within the country. Cutting emissions but leaving the marginalised sectors without access to necessary MRE, their human rights continue to be violated.

 

Hoffmann 8. How do we have to change our life style to have the actual effect on emission reduction?

Current consumption patterns, methods and lifestyles are also subject to profound change. It is rethinking how we organise our daily life, altering the way we socialise, exchange, share, educate and build identities.

  •  We need to concentrate on societies and structures as a whole, rather than their individual actions. (Vermeulen (2009: 25)
  • Consumption patterns will not significantly change unless income distribution changes as well.

JPN: The report encourages individuals to be mindful of energy saving and take low carbon action such as buying low carbon equipments to replace the old ones (well, buy stuff anyway!).

You can quickly think that the things which serve for our life “convenient” at unnecessary level:  the cold chain system, individual door to door next-day shipping and delivery, notorious vending machines which keep canned drinks warm or cool for 24hs everyday, super markets and convenience stores which open for long hours where food items are kept cool but quickly wasted, etc., those “convenient life” need to be given up and those industries should be restructured and phased out.

 

References in Hoffmann (2011):

Bleischwitz R, Bahn-Walkowiak B, Ekardt F, Feldt H and Fuhr L (2012). International Resource Politics: New challenges demanding new governance approaches for a green economy. Discussion Paper, Heinrich Böll Fundation and Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy (forthcoming);

GRAIN (2012). Food, climate change and healthy soils: the forgotten link. In: UNCTAD, Trade and Environment Review 2011/2012 (forthcoming);

UN/DESA (2010). World Population Prospects, 2010 Revision. Available at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/unpp/panel_population.htm;

Vermeulen S (2009). Sustainable Consumption: A Fairer Deal for Poor Consumers. UNEP/GRID, Environment and Poverty Times, No. 6, September. Available at: http://www.grida.no.